Types and Stages of Ovarian Cancer

Ovarian Cancer - Dr. Amish Dalal

Types and Stages of Ovarian Cancer

Determination of the types and the stages of ovarian cancer require a thorough check-up and diagnosis to initiate the necessary line of treatment accordingly. Dr. Amish V. Dalal, a renowned Surgical Oncologist, assesses the condition of his patients and recommends treatment.

Staging of Ovarian Cancer

Staging refers to the diagnostic process that assesses the extent to which the cancer has spread from the location of its origin. This aids oncologists to decide on the necessity for a surgery as treatment. Accurate staging is important to arrest malignant tumour from spreading. Once the stage of the cancer has been diagnosed, it remains constant irrespective of the recurrence of cancer. The stage remains unchanged even if the cancer metastasises or spreads to new locations in the body.

As a part of diagnosis and determination of the type and stage of cancer, tissues samples are collected from different parts of the abdomen and the pelvis for examination under a microscope. This procedure also helps oncologists to assess whether the cancer is benign and does not require treatment, or is malignant. In case the cancer is malignant, a surgery is usually considered as treatment. For ovarian cancer, oncologists follow a 1 to 4 staging system. Doctor Amish Dalal analyses the stage of the ovarian cancer basis the tissue collected and recommends the next course of treatment accordingly.

The most recognised staging system is the TNM (Tumour, Nodes and Metastasis). It serves as the basis of the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics or FIGO staging system.

To break it down further, TNM stands for:

  • Post-surgery results for the prognosis of the extent and size of the primary tumour, wherein ‘T’ stands for ‘tumour’
  • Location and number of metastasis to the adjoining lymph nodes, wherein ‘N’ stands for ‘nodes’
  • Presence or absence of distant metastasis, that is, metastasis to other parts of the body, wherein ‘M’ stands for ‘metastasis’

Amish Dalal reviews the medical condition of his patients to decide on the stage of the disease.

Types of Ovarian Cancer

There are different types of ovarian cancer that are classified basis the cell from which the disease has originated. These are:

Common epithelial tumours

This refer to the cells lining the outer surface of ovaries. It usually occurs in postmenopausal women. Most tumours that develop on the surface of ovaries are usually benign and do not require treatment. It needs frequent diagnosis of the tumour for seasoned oncologists like Dr. Amish Dalal to decide on the stage and line of treatment. Some epithelial tumours, referred to as tumours of low malignant potential (LMP tumours) or borderline tumours, may not be clearly identifiable as cancerous. This further emphasises on the importance of frequent evaluation for early diagnosis of the disease.

Germ cell tumours

The origin of germ cell tumours lies in the cells that produce eggs or ova. They can be benign or may need further treatment. The common germ cell tumours are dysgerminomas, teratomas and endodermal sinus tumours. It usually develops among teenagers and women in their twenties.

Stromal tumours

This develops in the connective tissue cells that hold the ovaries together and those that produce female hormones, progesterone and oestrogen. Some of the most common types of stromal tumours are Sertoli-Leydig cell tumours and granulosa-theca tumours. It is a rare form of cancer that manifests itself in the Stage I of the disease, which may not always hold true for other types of cancer.

Small cell ovarian carcinoma (SCCO)

It is a rare cancer type that is usually malignant by nature and affects women in their mid-twenties. Some of the common types are neuro-endocrine, pulmonary and hypercalcemic.

Patients diagnosed with malignant tumours can book an appointment with Amish Dalal at Jaslok Hospital, Breach Candy Hospital, Bhatia General Hospital, Saifee Hospital or Parsee General Hospital.

Book an appointment today.

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